Ceph is an object, a block and filesystem storage system.

As you can see from the Ceph.com visitors map here, people all around the world search for it. You can also see some metrics about the Ceph project at their metrics site here.

I’m going to go over the installation of a two node Ceph storage cluster. You can then build on those storage nodes and choose multiple storage types you want to use.

I personally recommend to use at least two nodes even for a test cluster!

Requirements

I assume that you have basic linux knowledge and at least two servers with CentOS7 up and running that can reach each other.

In my case my two example servers are having 2vCores and 4GB RAM. The OS used is CentOS7 (to be exact CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)). My examples servers for this tutorial have the following addresses: * 203.0.113.1 ceph-tutorial-node1 * 203.0.113.2 ceph-tutorial-node2

Please note the IPs used here are according to RFC5737

You have to decide from what server you want to deploy your cluster. I use the first server ceph-tutorial-node1 as the “deployment” server.

Preparing your servers for Ceph

Let’s begin first by adding the Epel and Ceph repository to all our used servers. On all the servers we have, we need to add the Epel package repositories to the repository list. The following commands add the Epel package repositories and the Epel repository verification key:

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sudo yum install -y yum-utils && sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/7/x86_64/
sudo yum install --nogpgcheck -y epel-release
sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-7
sudo rm /etc/yum.repos.d/dl.fedoraproject.org*

Now that our servers have the Epel repository added, we’re finally going to add the Ceph repository. Use your favorited editor to create a file /etc/yum.repos.d/ceph.repo and copy the following content into it:

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[ceph-noarch]
name=Ceph noarch packages
baseurl=http://download.ceph.com/rpm-jewel/el7/noarch
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
type=rpm-md
gpgkey=https://download.ceph.com/keys/release.asc
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<td style="vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;">
<pre style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-shell" data-lang="shell">**Please note** You can replace <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>jewel<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> with the Ceph release version you want to install <span style="color:#f92672">(</span>current latest release is <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>jewel<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span><span style="color:#f92672">)</span> and <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>el7<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> with, depending on what CentOS version number you have, <span style="color:#66d9ef">for</span> example <span style="color:#66d9ef">for</span> CentOS7 it should be <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>el7<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> and <span style="color:#66d9ef">for</span> CentOS6 it should be <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>el6<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> <span style="color:#f92672">(</span>other CentOS versions don<span style="color:#e6db74">&#39;t have official rpm builds available and will not work!).
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">Now we have the Ceph repository in our repository list on all of our servers.
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">An important step is to configure NTP service on all servers to keep the time synchronized across the storage cluster, but I&#39;</span>m not going to cover this.
Other important things to make sure, before continuing with the tutorial:
* You should use an user with password less login and sudo without password rights on details how to create an user <span style="color:#66d9ef">for</span> that see <span style="color:#f92672">[</span>Ceph Preflight Docs<span style="color:#f92672">](</span>http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/start/quick-start-preflight/#enable-password-less-ssh<span style="color:#f92672">)</span>, but it is **not required**.
* Selinux needs to be set to <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>Permissive<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> during the installation process <span style="color:#f92672">(</span>Command to disable SElinux temporarly<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>sudo setenforce <span style="color:#ae81ff">0</span><span style="color:#e6db74">`</span><span style="color:#f92672">)</span>.
* By default firewalld is in place on most CentOS servers, you either have to open the specific ports or just disable the firewall completely <span style="color:#f92672">(</span><span style="color:#66d9ef">for</span> more details see <span style="color:#f92672">[</span>Ceph Preflight Docs<span style="color:#f92672">](</span>http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/start/quick-start-preflight/#open-required-ports<span style="color:#f92672">))</span>.

<span style="color:#75715e"># Preparing the Ceph deployment
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>Switch to your deployment server and install the Ceph deployment package <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>ceph-deploy<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> on the deployment server, in my <span style="color:#66d9ef">case</span> server <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>ceph-tutorial-node1<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>.
The first commands will update your package database and system. The second command will install the <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>ceph-deploy<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> package on your CentOS server:
&lt;div class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;highlight&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;div style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;table style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;1
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;2
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;sudo yum clean all &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;&amp;amp;&amp;amp;&lt;/span&gt; sudo yum update
sudo yum install ceph-deploy&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;

Still on the deployment server <span style="color:#f92672">(</span>in my <span style="color:#66d9ef">case</span> <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>ceph-tutorial-node1<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span><span style="color:#f92672">)</span> create a folder where files <span style="color:#66d9ef">for</span> the deployment will be stored. For example:
&lt;div class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;highlight&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;div style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;table style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;1
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;2
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;mkdir ~/my-ceph-cluster
cd ~/my-ceph-cluster&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;

<span style="color:#75715e"># Deploying Ceph storage nodes
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>To generate the basic Ceph cluster configuration I run <span style="color:#66d9ef">for</span> my two servers:
&lt;div class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;highlight&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;div style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;table style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;1
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;ceph-deploy new ceph-tutorial-node1 ceph-tutorial-node2&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
**Please note** Where ceph-tutorial-node1 is you deployment server.

Example output of the <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>ceph-deploy new ceph-tutorial-node1<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> command:
&lt;div class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;highlight&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;div style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;table style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">1</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">2</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">3</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">4</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">5</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">6</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">7</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">8</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt; <span style="color:#ae81ff">9</span>
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;10
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;11
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;12
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;13
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;14
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;15
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;16
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;17
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;18
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;19
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;20
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;21
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;22
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;23
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;24
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;25
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;26
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;27
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;28
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;29
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;30
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;31
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;32
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;33
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;34
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#75715e&#34;</span>&gt;# ceph-deploy new ceph-tutorial-node1
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#75715e&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.conf&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; found configuration file at: /root/.cephdeploy.conf
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Invoked &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">(</span>&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;1&lt;/span&gt;.5.34&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">)</span>&lt;/span&gt;: /usr/bin/ceph-deploy new ceph-tutorial-node1
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; ceph-deploy options:
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  username                      : None
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  func                          : &amp;lt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#66d9ef&#34;</span>&gt;function&lt;/span&gt; new at 0x1cfb6e0&amp;gt;
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  verbose                       : False
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  overwrite_conf                : False
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  quiet                         : False
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  cd_conf                       : &amp;lt;ceph_deploy.conf.cephdeploy.Conf instance at 0x1d56710&amp;gt;
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  cluster                       : ceph
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  ssh_copykey                   : True
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  mon                           : &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#e6db74&#34;</span>&gt;&amp;<span style="color:#75715e">#39;ceph-tutorial-node1&amp;#39;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;]&lt;/span&gt;
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  public_network                : None
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  ceph_conf                     : None
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  cluster_network               : None
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  default_release               : False
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.cli&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt;  fsid                          : None
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Creating new cluster named ceph
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; making sure passwordless SSH succeeds
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph-tutorial-node1&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; connected to host: ceph-tutorial-node1
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph-tutorial-node1&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; detect platform information from remote host
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph-tutorial-node1&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; detect machine type
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph-tutorial-node1&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; find the location of an executable
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph-tutorial-node1&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Running command: /usr/sbin/ip link show
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph-tutorial-node1&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;INFO  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Running command: /usr/sbin/ip addr show
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph-tutorial-node1&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; IP addresses found: &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#e6db74&#34;</span>&gt;&amp;<span style="color:#75715e">#39;203.0.113.1&amp;#39;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;]&lt;/span&gt;
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Resolving host ceph-tutorial-node1
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Monitor ceph-tutorial-node1 at &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;203&lt;/span&gt;.0.113.1
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Monitor initial members are &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#e6db74&#34;</span>&gt;&amp;<span style="color:#75715e">#39;ceph-tutorial-node1&amp;#39;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;]&lt;/span&gt;
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Monitor addrs are &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#e6db74&#34;</span>&gt;&amp;<span style="color:#75715e">#39;203.0.113.1&amp;#39;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;]&lt;/span&gt;
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Creating a random mon key...
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Writing monitor keyring to ceph.mon.keyring...
&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">[</span>&lt;/span&gt;ceph_deploy.new&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">][</span>&lt;/span&gt;DEBUG &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">]</span>&lt;/span&gt; Writing initial config to ceph.conf...&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;

Running <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>ls<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>, we see the generated files in the directory:
&lt;div class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;highlight&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;div style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;table style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;1
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;2
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#75715e&#34;</span>&gt;# ls
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#75715e&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;/span&gt;ceph.conf  ceph-deploy-ceph.log  ceph.mon.keyring&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;

Now we need to add an option to the bottom of the default Ceph configuration file <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>ceph.conf<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>.
The options is:
&lt;div class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;highlight&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;div style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;table style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;1
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;osd pool default size &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f92672&#34;</span>&gt;<span style="color:#f92672">=</span>&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;2&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
The option sets the number of replications, <span style="color:#66d9ef">for</span> two nodes you **have** tp set it to <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span><span style="color:#ae81ff">2</span><span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> <span style="color:#66d9ef">else</span> the Ceph cluster will not become healthy.
You can also add other options here, but as this is just a basic tutorial on how to create a Ceph cluster I<span style="color:#e6db74">&#39;m not covering other options than the default.
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">Now that our Ceph configuration `ceph.conf` is ready we are going to install Ceph on all servers and create our initial cluster monitor.
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">The command for deploying Ceph onto my two servers and creating the monitor server on your server chosen above, in my case `ceph-tutorial-node1` the commands look like this:
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;div class=&#34;highlight&#34;&gt;&lt;div style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;table style=&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;2
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;ceph-deploy install --no-adjust-repos ceph-tutorial-node1 ceph-tutorial-node2
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">ceph-deploy mon create-initial&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">**Errors** If the command fails, you need to apply a bug fix with the command `sed -i &#39;</span>78s/allow <span style="color:#ae81ff">\*</span>/allow/g<span style="color:#e6db74">&#39; /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/ceph_deploy/gatherkeys.py`. The bug  can be seen [here](http://tracker.ceph.com/issues/16443)).
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">**Please note** If the last command exits with errors, check the connectivity of your servers and firewall between the servers (if a firewall is in place between the servers, make sure it allows the Ceph ports, ports: TCP Ceph mon(itor) 6789, Ceph OSDs 6800:7300 (for more information see [Ceph Preflight Docs](http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/start/quick-start-preflight/#open-required-ports))).
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74"># Creating the storage nodes
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">Use ssh to connect to your servers that you want to be storage nodes and create a directory for the storaged data.
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">In my case:
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;div class=&#34;highlight&#34;&gt;&lt;div style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;table style=&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;2
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;3
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;4
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;5
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;6
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;7
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;ssh ceph-tutorial-node1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">sudo mkdir /var/local/osd
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">exit
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">ssh ceph-tutorial-node2
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">sudo mkdir /var/local/osd
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">exit&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">Back on your deployment server (in my case `ceph-tutorial-node1`) we are going to prepare the storage nodes with the following command:
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;div class=&#34;highlight&#34;&gt;&lt;div style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;table style=&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;ceph-deploy osd prepare &lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;{&lt;/span&gt;ceph-node&lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;}&lt;/span&gt;:/path/to/directory&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">For my two servers I run:
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;div class=&#34;highlight&#34;&gt;&lt;div style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;table style=&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;ceph-deploy osd prepare ceph-tutorial-node1:/var/local/osd ceph-tutorial-node2:/var/local/osd&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">The `ceph-deploy osd prepare` prepares the storage location and sets up the Ceph OSD in the background.
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">The only thing we have to do now is to activate the storage locations (Ceph OSDs) using the activate command:
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;div class=&#34;highlight&#34;&gt;&lt;div style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;table style=&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;ceph-deploy osd activate &lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;{&lt;/span&gt;ceph-node&lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;}&lt;/span&gt;:/path/to/directory&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">For my two servers I run:
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;div class=&#34;highlight&#34;&gt;&lt;div style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;table style=&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;ceph-deploy osd activate ceph-tutorial-node1:/var/local/osd ceph-tutorial-node2:/var/local/osd&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74"># Finalizing your Ceph cluster
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">Copy the Ceph admin key to the servers you want to be able to configure your Ceph cluster from with the below command:
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;div class=&#34;highlight&#34;&gt;&lt;div style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;table style=&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;ceph-deploy admin &lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;{&lt;/span&gt;deployment-node&lt;span style=&#34;color:#f92672&#34;&gt;}&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">**Please note** Where `{deployment-node}` is your server you ran all the commands on.
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">To check if you Ceph cluster is healthy use the health command:
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;div class=&#34;highlight&#34;&gt;&lt;div style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;table style=&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;1
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;&gt;2
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;td style=&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;pre style=&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;&gt;&lt;code class=&#34;language-shell&#34; data-lang=&#34;shell&#34;&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;color:#75715e&#34;&gt;# ceph health
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&#34;color:#75715e&#34;&gt;&lt;/span&gt;HEALTH_OK&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&lt;/div&gt;
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">**Please note** If it shows something else than `HEALTH_OK` your cluster is unhealthy and may not even work properly.
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">
</span><span style="color:#e6db74">That&#39;</span>s all. Now you have a working Ceph storage cluster.

<span style="color:#75715e"># Troubleshooting
</span><span style="color:#75715e">## Log file location
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>In <span style="color:#66d9ef">case</span> of other problems, all Ceph log files are located under <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>/var/log/ceph/<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>.
**Example**:
&lt;div class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;highlight&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;div style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;table style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;width:auto;overflow:auto;display:block;&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;tr&gt;&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;1
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;2
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;3
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;4
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7c7c79&#34;</span>&gt;5
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
&lt;td style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;&#34;</span>&gt;
&lt;pre style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;code class<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;language-shell&#34;</span> data-lang<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;shell&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#75715e&#34;</span>&gt;# ls -hl /var/log/ceph/
&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#75715e&#34;</span>&gt;&lt;/span&gt;total 340K
-rw------- &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;1&lt;/span&gt; root root 126K Aug  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;8&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;13&lt;/span&gt;:24 ceph.log
-rw-r--r-- &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;1&lt;/span&gt; root root 196K Aug  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;8&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;13&lt;/span&gt;:25 ceph-mon.ceph-tutorial-node1.log
-rw-r--r-- &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;1&lt;/span&gt; root root &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;5&lt;/span&gt;.2K Aug  &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;8&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span style<span style="color:#f92672">=</span><span style="color:#e6db74">&#34;color:#ae81ff&#34;</span>&gt;09&lt;/span&gt;:26 ceph-osd.0.log&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;&lt;/table&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;

<span style="color:#75715e">## &#34;Clock skew&#34; error
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>If the health command returns a message like <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>clock skew detected<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>, <span style="color:#66d9ef">then</span> your clock on the server<span style="color:#f92672">(</span>s<span style="color:#f92672">)</span> is not synced. Please install and configure an NTP server and client<span style="color:#f92672">(</span>s<span style="color:#f92672">)</span>.

<span style="color:#75715e"># Summary
</span><span style="color:#75715e"></span>This should help you get started with installing/running a Ceph cluster on CentOS.
If you have issues, please refer to the official <span style="color:#e6db74">`</span>ceph-deploy<span style="color:#e6db74">`</span> documentation her: <span style="color:#f92672">[</span>ceph-deploy - Deploy Ceph with minimal infrastructure - ceph-deploy <span style="color:#ae81ff">2</span>.0.0 documentation<span style="color:#f92672">](</span>http://docs.ceph.com/ceph-deploy/docs/<span style="color:#f92672">)</span> and <span style="color:#f92672">[</span>Ceph Deployment - Ceph Documentation<span style="color:#f92672">](</span>http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/rados/deployment/<span style="color:#f92672">)</span>.

Have Fun!</code></pre></td></tr></table>
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